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120234_7疥瘡感染症
疥瘡是由人疥蟎所引起,疥蟎會寄生在皮膚表層,特別在人體皺摺處及柔軟的地方,包括手指間、腳趾縫、肩胛骨、腕、肘、腋下、腰、乳頭、陰莖、屁股等。
免疫能力較差、年長、失能、操勞過度者,可能會感染較嚴重的結痂型疥瘡(挪威疥;Crusted / Norwegian Scabies),患者身上會出現厚痂皮的疹子,內含大量的蟎及卵;因疥蟎寄生的數量較多,可能多達上千隻,甚至百萬隻,傳染力較強。患者身上的蟎會掉落在衣服、床鋪及傢俱上,因此感染挪威疥的患者必須盡速進行治療,避免造成流行。 .> 疾病資訊傳播方式:接觸患者的皮膚、衣物、床舖或傢俱皆可能被傳染,疥蟎在成人間常透過身體親密接觸傳染。疥瘡傳染性很高,患者應格外注重個人的清潔衛生。
潛伏期:人第一次感染約2至6週才會出現症狀;若為二次感染,症狀約1到4天就會出現。
發病症狀:典型症狀為皮膚劇癢,至夜間時更為嚴重。感染疥蟎後,人體對疥蟎及其排泄物產生過敏反應,因此皮膚上會出現紅斑、丘疹、水皰等症狀,有時因劇癢抓傷引起疼痛,並導致細菌感染。
預防方法:
(一) 注重個人清潔衛生。
(二) 避免接觸患者的皮膚、衣物及床鋪,患者的房間必須澈底清理。
(三) 患者及接觸者(尤其親密接觸者)都必須接受治療。
(四) 外宿時選擇每天會更換床單及被單的旅館,尤其在環境衛生不良的地區。
(五) 最好一人一張床,若有不同人使用同一張床,最好更換床單及被單。
(六) 不要讓別人睡自己的床或使用自己的寢具,衣服也不要互相借穿。
治療方法與就醫資訊:
(一) 經醫師診斷確定後,使用滅疥藥物,必須從脖子塗抹到腳底,全身都要塗到,如背部、屁股縫、陰部、肚臍、手指間、腳趾縫、指甲縫等較不易塗敷部位均須澈底塗遍,不應只塗抹發癢部位;並遵守藥物標示及注意事項。
(二) 疥蟎離開身體2至4天後即會死亡,故治療開始前3天內,患者使用的床被單、衣服均須用60℃以上的熱水清洗並以高熱乾燥,無法清洗或乾洗的衣物,密封於塑膠袋兩週。患者衣物要與未患病者分開處理,並持續高溫處理至患者藥物停止使用為止。
(三) 除去疥蟎及卵後,皮膚發癢及疹子約需一個月才會全部消失,此時可使用止癢的外用及口服藥物,以緩和症狀。若治療後2到4週皮膚仍會發癢或疹子再度出現,可能需要再次治療。
(四) 初次感染疥瘡約2至6週才會出現症狀,然而無症狀時也具有傳染力,因此若疑似感染,可先塗抹治療藥物。

跳蚤53416_1
跳蚤屬於完全變態的昆蟲。具有4個生命周期:卵,幼蟲,蛹和成蟲。成蟲必須嗜血才能進行繁殖。

當雌蟲進食而後產卵,跳蚤的生命周期就開始了。雌蟲通常在宿主身上產卵,一次產20枚左右。這意味著卵很容易被宿主帶到地上。因此,宿主休息和睡眠的地點通常是卵的棲息地和幼蟲的發育地。卵的孵化需要2-12天。

幼蟲破殼而出後,會進食一切有機物,例如昆蟲的屍體,排泄物和植物。它們沒有視覺,因而躲避在陰暗的地點,比如沙、縫隙、裂縫和床單里。如果有充足的食物,幼蟲能夠在1-2周內化蛹,編織一個絲狀的繭。又在1-2周之後,成蟲發育完全,可以從繭中出現。

然而,它們可能繼續休息,直到它們通過一些信號知道宿主來了。這些信號包括:震動(包括聲音),體熱,和二氧化碳。跳蚤在幼蟲和繭的生長階段可以持續整個冬季。

當跳蚤達到成熟階段,它的主要目標就是尋找血源,而後進行繁殖。成蟲在出繭後只有大約一個星期的時間來尋找食物。過後它們可以不進食2-3年。跳蚤群呈均勻分布,大約有50%的卵,35%的幼蟲,10%的繭和5%的成蟲。它們的生命可以短到只有一年,也可以多到幾年。雌蟲一生可以產卵5000枚或者更多,具備非凡的繁殖能力。

歐洲兔蚤,一種宿主為雌兔的跳蚤,能夠探測到兔子血液中的皮質醇、皮質脂酮和荷爾蒙。由此判斷她是否要開始產仔。這也觸發了跳蚤的性成熟,它們因而開始產卵。一旦小兔子出生,跳蚤就跑到小兔子身上,然後開始進食、交配並且產卵。12天之後,成蟲又跑回母兔身上。每次小兔子出生,跳蚤們都會這樣做。

如果找不到血源,新出繭的成年跳蚤只能活一周左右。但是,完全發育的成年跳蚤即使幾個月不進食也能存活。

跳蚤生活的理想溫度是21°到30°,理想濕度為70%。

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